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Konstanthinos XI

Lisowczycy

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My mistake - it was Sigismund Rakoczy, son of Jerzy I Rakoczy, that led large 'division' of his father's army in that operation.

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W Kłatowie lisowczycy utworzywszy koło generalne zaprzysięgli artykuły, jeden z nich zaciekawił mnie niepomiernie:

art XXIX

"Ktoby się ważył na wstyd wojskowy w rynsztoku siedząc pić, albo w koszuli, a tem bardziej nago na koniu biegać, albo na ulicy jawnie a z pijaństwa siedzieć..."

/W. Dembołęcki "Pamiętniki o Lissowczykach, czyli Przewagi Elearów polskich : (r. 1619 aż do 1623)" Kraków 1859, s. 78/

Ciekawym, kiedy to jakiś z lisowczyków taką fantazją (: opilstwem) się wykazał, bo chyba aż taki szczegół ujęty w artykułach powód musiał mieć w rzeczywistych zdarzeniach.

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Puszczali nago jeńców, więc może i od czasu do czasu jakiś towarzysz się nago wypuszczał na balety ;)

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učitel   

As I have learnt from the thirty year´s war archieve sources, in summer 1621, "Heidelberczyk" (Czech king Fridrich V Wittelsbach) intended using English regiment under command of colonel Andrew Gray against "Polish robbing people" who penetrated imperial Silesia from Poland. He meant against LISOWCZYCY.

It is truth, col. Gray´s regiment - that was mostly comprised from criminals - thieves and murders - should have been used against similar types of "soldiers" - Polish Lisowczycy.

In the end, it remainds only as wishes - becouse of imperial army drew to South Bohemia, the situation became dangerous for Protestant army and therefore Gray´s regiment was subordinated to Mansfeld´s Supporting Army and was directed to southwest area from Prague, Rokycany and Pilsen (Plzeň).

Unfortunately, Czech armed forces were weak anyway, it was just three months before the Battle of Weissberg (Bílá hora).

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jancet   

Vážený pán učiteľ, dajte do do čestiny. Bude to pre niektôrých zrozumiteľnejšie, a vždy viac autentické.

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It is truth, col. Gray´s regiment - that was mostly comprised from criminals - thieves and murders - should have been used against similar types of "soldiers" - Polish Lisowczycy.

Out of curiosity - what's the source of information that Gray's regiment was composed from criminals?

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učitel   

For "jancet": Oh, hard to say - I don´t know if the others could have understood my Czech. I suppose that Czech language is suitable for people from Upper Silesia and Teschen area, but what about the others????

For "Kadrinazi": This information comes from the book by Fynes Moryson/John Taylor: "A Journey to Czechia" ("Cesta do Čech"). Concrete sentences describing Gray´s regiment comes from a conclusion of the book that was written by a translator and a poet - Mr. Alois Bejblík on page 202..

Instead of Moryson´s "Itinerary", the book is also comprised from three Taylor´s leaflets: "Blessing of Heavens", "Englishmen´s Love to Czechia" and "A Journey to Prague"("Žehnání nebes", "Láska Angličanů k Čechám" a "Cesta do Prahy"). All three poems have celebrating character, Taylor was describing col. Gray´s regiment´s "heroism" in the leaflet called "Englishmen´s Love to Czechia"[/b][/u].

As I have read somewhere, col. Gray´s regiment didn´t get to Battle of Weissberg, the unit was used for the defence of Karlštejn citadel, probably in September/October 1620.

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Based on English and (especially) Scottish primary and secondary sources it's really hard to agree with Mr Bejblik's sentence. Alhough some convincts were released by Scottish Privy Council to be enlisted into Gray's regiment, convicted murderers were not amongst them - as they were usually hand in Edinburgh, once sentenced to death ;) Some beggars and vagabonds ('maisterless men haveand no laughfull trade no meanis of intertenyment') were also forcefully enlisted but hard to call them criminals. More than 100 Scots came from reiving clans from the Borders - I wouldn't jump to conclusion to call them criminals,. just because of their style of life. Sir Andrew Gray had his main recruitment camp in Scotland set in Monkigr, near Athelstaneford in East Lothian - and he was recruiting locally, with at least part of his soldiers coming from Catholic clans settles in area. One of such volunteers was John Hepburn, second son of th laird of Athelstaneford. All together 1400-1500 Scottish and 1000 English soldiers were recruited. Anonymous author of 'A Most True Relation of the late Procedeeings in Bohemia, Germany and Hungaria. Dated the 1. the 10. and 13 of July the present yeere 1620' wrote about Gray's regiment: 'Colonel Gray is (God be blessed) safely arrived in Lusatia with hos Brittans: he hath mustred two thousand foure hundred brave men; they are mightily praysed for their modest behaviour in their passage' - hardly something one can expect from regiment of criminals ;) John Hepbrun with honour guard from Gray's regiment was send to Pragu to guard 'Winter King' - rather unusual for 'thieves and murderes', don't You think?

For those interested in Fynes Moryson's 'An itinerary...' it can be found online in English of course :)

http://archive.org/stream/fynesmorysons04moryuoft/fynesmorysons04moryuoft_djvu.txt

but his works do not help us in regards to Gray's regiment, as it was published before outbreak of TYW.

In regards to Gray's regiment after 1620 - some officers were present at Bila Hora, as colonel later ransomed them. Rest of regiment, at the time of battle, was with Gray near Karlstejn. Gray was later defending Elbogen (Loket) and Falkenau (Sokolov) until surrender in April 1621, when remaining part of his regiment was allowed to leave to Frankenthal.

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učitel   

Unlike Stanislaw Stroynowski, it isn´t known when and where Idzi Kalinowski ended his life. It is written that Kalinowski was famous for his robbery in autumn 1626, during the battle of Gniew, after the fighting with Sweden was restored. Lots of accucations were imposed, and a result was, that Kalinowski together with Śleżyński and many others were definitely expelled from the Royal Polish Army and he became infamis (for several times already). His next fate is unknown. (Once I read on the Internet that Kalinowski was hired for Prussian military service but the plausibility of the sources is uncertain.)  

____________________________________________

Concerning Kalinowski´s death, there is a rather interesting report publicated in historic regional ethnographic journal, called Naše Valašsko (= "Our Wallachia"), a number from 1943. On the page 27 there is described a statement of a Wallachian rebel, Pavel Jančík from Kelč, who was tortured in Lipník on 20th April 1628: "I was three times among Wallachian rebels, one time I was looking for cattle, under Helšteyn (a castle); two times I was in Hranice with Janoštík from Vykanice near Rožnov, that time he was a heytman of them, when they drove cattle from Lipník, when they had killed Kalinovsky near Hranice."

 

The main problem is, that the topic of the rebel´s statement is not dated - what time did he mean? Kalinowski was on mission against Moravian Wallachs in summer 1623, together with Lanikowski (in September 1623 he was in Poland), in winter and spring 1624 with Stroynowski (he returned in June 1624). Next mission - 1625? - lead Kalinowski to northern Italy (Liguria, Zuccarello, Milano, Lombardia, Riva di Chiavenna) and then, in 1626, during his journey to Poland, he tried to defeat Danish units together with a help of imperial units from the neighbourhood of Opava, Teschen and Opole and other Silesian towns. But, Kalinowski´s lisowczycy were defeated in the battle of Opava. After Kalinowski´s return to Poland he planned next mission, then in northern war theatre - against Sweden in Royal Prussia, with Mikolaj Moczarski´s cornets. But I have written it above already.

I think, hard to say that Kalinowski could have fought in Moravia (near Hranice) still in 1627, because that year general Wallenstein and Marradas drew on the whole Danish Silesian contingent. And it is not known, that these imperial regiments would have included some Lisowczycy´s cornet in 1627. But they had an auxiliary and rapid cavalry - Dragi´s Croatian cavalry regiment, that formed in Valašské Meziříčí.

Concerning the rebel, Pavel Jančík, I think, the events could date to January/February 1624, when Kalinowski was at his regiment´s settlement near Hranice. And the LIsowczyk, whom Janoštík´s rebels have killed, was no "Kalinowski", but some lisowski rytmistrz but porucznik.

(And, recalled Wallachian heytman - "Janoštík" - it will mean probably Václav Januštík came from Kostelec. He was a son of Kostelec´s miller Jan Štika (from this "Januštík"), who was murdered by Lisowczycy when Hieronym Kleczkowski´s troops were riding through Moravia towards Vienna at the beginning of January 1620. Januštík became soon a brave Wallachian commander, heytman, and under his command Wallachian men managed to destroy two Polish cornets, directly under Stroynowski´s command, supposedly. It was at the beginning of March 1624. This first Wallachian success caused that radicalized Wallachians began to expel Polish garrisons from Wallachian little towns as Lukov, Fryšták and Kostelec.)

 

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učitel   

One false information: .....who was murdered by Lisowczycy when Hieronym Kleczkowski´s troops were riding through Moravia towards Vienna at the beginning of January 1620.

 

I have to correct one mistake publicated 25. 8. 2017 as above. 

The right information is that:  ...who was murdered by Lisowczycy when Hieronym Kleczkowski´s troops were riding through Moravia towards Vienna at the beginning of February 1620. 

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